Reasons why pets itch and scratch Print E-mail
News - Rubrieke
Friday, 22 January 2021 13:28
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Dr Liesel van der Merwe is a small animal medicine specialist. Send her your questions: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .


Dr Liesel van der Merwe

Itching, scratching dogs are one of the most common complaints a vet has to deal with. The reasons for itching include parasites, infection and allergic disease.

Firstly make sure that there are no skin and intestinal parasites and that deworming is up to date. Effective control of ticks, fleas and worms is essential as these can induce an allergic reaction.

Parasites
Topical applications, “spot-on treatments”, should not be applied immediately after bathing the dogs. Allow a gap of four days before and four days after bathing. The active ingredient needs to spread along the natural oils on the skin and then builds up in the skin glands.

Products are available in different formulations. Powders and shampoos will only work for a few days before the compounds are gone from the dog’s skin. Dips generally last seven to ten days, collars one to three months and the topical “spot-on” applications “up to” four weeks.

Collars are not ideal for puppies and young, chewing dogs, as they are toxic and will cause some mild to moderate neurological signs if swallowed, although these are transient with the veterinary brands.

The newest products available are tablets, which needs to be given only every three months, and is highly effective against ticks and fleas with a very rapid onset of action.

Infection
Make sure that there is no skin infection. Due to all the scratching, dogs can develop a mild skin infection, showing as small pimples and red flaky areas. This is really itchy and will need to be controlled with antibiotics from a vet.

A good antibacterial shampoo can also be used as a trial, but make sure it isn’t too harsh and drying on the skin. The more expensive ones are milder and cause less stripping of the natural oils on the skin.

Diet
A good diet will result in a healthy skin. Good quality proteins and the correct amount and ratio of omega three and omega six fatty acids are important. Omega three fatty acids are found in salmon oil.

They are of immense benefit in cases with skin problems as they are incorporated into the membranes on the skin cells and make them more resistant to inflammation and itching.

The turnover of the dog’s skin is 20 days and it takes about four to eight weeks to notice the effect of improved nutrition. Increased oils in the food make more anti-oxidants in the food necessary to prevent it from becoming rancid.

Premium quality foods contain these ingredients, and some lines offer special care diets for dogs with sensitive skins. Adding sunflower oils to food will increase the coat’s shine but will not have an anti-inflammatory effect on the skin.

Washing
Excessive washing is a problem, especially in small breed dogs. Washing with shampoo should be kept to an absolute minimum as the detergent action strips off all your dog’s natural oils, drying out the skin. This will eventually predispose to bacterial infection, which causes a distinctive odour.

Rather brush out mud or wash with plain water if you can. A dog’s skin is more alkaline than that of humans (pH=7.5 versus 5.5). Using a “mild” baby shampoo is not advised. A good quality physiologically “normal” veterinary shampoo should be used on animals that are frequently bathed.

Attention should also be placed on not getting water in the ears: block with cotton wool, or place swimmer’s solution into the ears before bathing.

Cats
Cats also itch and will demonstrate this by over-grooming and licking bald patches. They also develop little scabs around their faces. Make sure no external parasites are present, and increase the plane of nutrition to a premium food which does not contain any protein of fish origin.

Fish and milk proteins are a major cause of allergies in cats. Check the list of ingredients of the food you are buying and remember, just because it says chicken flavour does not mean that there is no fishmeal in the product.

Underlying
If all these factors are being addressed and your pet is still itching, then visit a vet for diagnostic tests. Many animals with skin problems have underlying problems. If the cause is corrected, such as an underactive thyroid gland, diabetes or Cushing’s disease, you may solve the problem.

In many cases the cause is not identifiable and the patient will have a lifelong susceptibility to skin problems. The goal is managing the signs as effectively as possible. You should expect the condition to be controlled by medication, not cured, unless you can identify and remove the source.

 
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